Dear Friends, we are providing you the syllabus for written examination for PGTs. KVS PGT Syllabus was given below as a pdf. Candidates who had applied for and who want to apply for Post Graduate Teacher (PGT) can check this KVS PGT Exam Pattern and syllabus. We have given the complete KVS PGT Exam syllabus in pdf of English, Hindi, Physics, Chemistry, Economics, Commerce, Maths, Biology, History, Geography and Computer Science along with KVS PGT.
CLICK HERE FOR DOWNLOAD PDF OF PGTs SYLLABUS FOR ALL SUBJECTS: CLICK HERE
KVS PGT Exam Pattern 2016:
The examination will be conducted in two papers:
Part-I paper consists of 40 Questions
Part-II paper consists of 16 questions
Both Paper having Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs)
The test will be 03 hours of duration
Syllabus for written examination for PGT (Biology)
Diversity of living world
Taxonomic aids, keys, specimen management ; Systematic and binomial system of
nomenclature; Classification of living organisms( five kingdom classification, major groups and
principles of classification within each group) ; General description of monera, protozoa, fungi,
algae, bryophytes, pteridophyes, gymnosperms, angiosperms ( major groups of angiosperms
upto sub class) ; Botanical gardens ,herbaria, zoological parks and museums .Salient features
of animal ( nonchordates up to phylum level and chordates up to class level).
Structural organisation in plants and animals
Morphology, Anatomy and histology of angiosperms: Root , stem , leaf, flower , inflorescence,
fruits and seeds, Tissues : Meristamatic and permanent ( epidermal, ground, vascular).
Cambial activity, secondary growth, type of wood. Animal tissues ; Morphology, Anatomy and
histology of annelids , insects , amphibians.
Structural and functional organization of cell
Cell cycle , detailed study of Cell division (mitosis , meiosis) ; Cell death ; Structure and
function( metabolism) of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids ; Enzymology :
Classification and nomenclature of enzymes ; Structure ; Mechanism of action, single
substrate and bisubstrate enzyme ; Activators and inhibitors of enzymes ; Factors affecting
the activity of enzymes.
Water relations: Properties of water, water in tissues and cells, Transport of water and
solutes( food, nutrients, gases) : Transport across cell membrane ; soil-plant-atmosphere
continuum ; Minerals required by plant, their absorbable form, functions, deficiency
symptoms, essentiality of mineral, N2 metabolism, biological fixation ; Cellular Metabolism:
Gluconeogenesis, Glycogenesis and glycogenolysis, hormonal regulation ; Oxidation of food,
respiratory efficiency of various food components ; transport and detoxification of ammonia ,
Lipid Metabolism ; Photosynthesis: Basic principles of light absorption, excitation energy
transfer, electron transports, cycles ( C2 , C3, C4, CAM ), plant productivity, measurement of
photosynthetic parameters ; Physiological responses to abiotic stresses ; Sensory photobiology
; Plant growth regulators : Growth ,differentiation / de-differentiation and re-differentiation,
development ; Physiological affects and mechanism of action of plant growth hormones,
Flowering : Photoperiodism and its significance, endogenous clock and its regulation, floral
induction and development, vernalisation ; Plant movements.
Morphology, Anatomy, Histology, Physiology, Control and Disorders of Digestion, Respiration,
Body fluids and Circulation, Excretion, Skeleton system & muscle, Nervous; Physiology of high
Plants: Structural details of angiospermic flower, development of gametophytes, pollination
and its types, agencies of pollination, pollen- pistil interaction, fertilization, Artificial
hybridization (emasculation and bagging) development of seed and fruit ; Apomixis and
Polyembryony ; Self incompatibility: Structural and biochemical aspects; methods to
overcome incompatibility; Experimental Embryology; Human Reproduction: Morphology,
Anatomy, Histology and Physiology of reproduction ; Neuro-endocrine control ; Sexual
behavior in infancy, pre-adolescence, adolescence and of adult ; Implantation, Pregnancy and
Parturition ; Mammary gland and Lactation ; Infantile mammary gland, pubertal changes in
mammary gland; Structure of adult mammary gland, galactopoiesis, milk let down ;
Menopause. Senescence – Impact of age on reproduction.Foetal and Embryonic Gonads and
Genital ducts ;Hormonal basis of sex differentiation ; Disorders of sexual differentiation
development ;Reproductive Health: Problems and strategies, Population explosion –causes and
effects, birth control measures- natural methods, physical / barrier, bio-chemical, hormonal,
immunological, surgical methods, IUD’s , amniocentesis, female feticide, MMR, IMR, MTP,
STD’s, infertility Disorders of female and female reproductive systems – Sexual dysfunction;
Infertility – Causes and curative measures ; Reproductive toxicology of environmental and
industrial chemicals, drug and alcohol ;Medically assisted human reproductive technologies,
GIFT, IUT, ZIFT, TET ; Embryo culture.
Principles of Inheritance and Variation: Mendelian genetics, Inheritance of one gene, two
genes, post mendelian inheritance; Recombination frequency, chromosomal theory of
inheritance ; Drosophila genetics, linkage and recombinations ; Mutation :General properties
of mutations ; Adaptation versus mutation ; molecular basis of gene mutation : DNA repair
mechanisms ; Pedigree analysis ; Human karyotype-banding ; genetic and environmental
basis of sex determination, Y- and X-linked genes; Numerical and Structural abnormalities of
human chromosomes and related syndromes ; Human metabolic disorders.;Molecular Basis of
Inheritance: Chemical nature of DNA and RNA, Biological functions of nucleic acids ; Search for
genetic material, RNA world ; Replication ; Transcription and processing of RNA, Genetic code; Translation, post-translational modifications ; Ribosomes and Proteins ; Regulation of Gene
expression ; DNA Fingerprinting ; Gene mapping ; Chromosome banding; Restriction enzyme,
nucleotide sequence comparisons and homologies ; Molecular clocks ; Genetics in modern
agriculture ,animal breeding, medicine, human behaviour ; Misuse of genetics ; Genetic
Counseling ; Gene therapy ; HGP ; Gene Activity in prokaryotes and eukaryotes ; Signals for
gene control – Hormones and growth factors ; Totipotency & Pleuripotency ; Stem cell and
Gene therapy ; Bacterial transformation, transduction and conjugation, Bacterial chromosome
; Bacteriophages : Types, structure and morphology ;Evolutionary biology: Cosmic evolution –
Physical basis of life ; Theories of origin of life ; Origin of life through biochemical evolution ;
Experimental evidences for origin of life ; The origin of natural selection ; Extraterrestrial life ;
Evolution of the eukaryotic cell : Evolution of the Metazoa ; Evolution of chordata and the
evolution of the major vertebrate classes; Origin and evolution of man : Population Genetics;
Genetic variations ; Polymorphism ; Gene frequency; Hardy Weinberg equilibrium ; Genetic
drift, founder effect ; adaptive radiations, ecological significance of molecular variations.
Biology in Human welfare
Health and disease ; types of diseases, common diseases in humans ; Immunology – Innate
and Acquired immunity ; Passive and active immunization ; Organization and structure of
lymphoid organ ; Cells of the immune system and their differentiation ; Lymphocyte traffic ;
Nature of immune response ; Structure and Functions of antibodies : Antigen-Antibody
interactions ; Humoral immune response ; Cell mediated immunity ; Immunological memory ;
Auto-immunity ; Allergies; HLA system in human :MHC haplotypes ; Transplantation types and
problems ; Immunodeficiency disorders ;etiology of HIV ; types, genetics and biochemistry of
cancer ; Drugs and alcohol abuse, Addiction , drug dependence, ill effects, prevention, its
abuse in adolescents and its management;Strategies for food production and enhancement:
Animal husbandry, management of farm animals, breeding strategies ( natural and artificial)
and their types, economic importance of each ; Plant breeding, method of release of new
variety, HYV of common cereals and pulses, bio-fortification, SCP ; Tissue culturing, somatic
hybridization;Microbes in Human Welfare: Technology associated and use of Microbes in
household, industries, medicine, bio-active molecules, sewage treatment and STP, Ganga and
Yamuna action plan, biogas production, biocontrol agents, biofertilizers.
Principles of Biotechnology
Genetic engineering tools and technique, technique of separation and isolation of DNA, cloning
vectors ,electrophoresis, bio reactors, processing of its products. Tissue engineering ;
Cryopreservation ; Fusion methods, detection and applications of monoclonal antibodies, DNA
vaccines, Edible vaccines.;Application in agriculture : GMO for pest resistance, RNAi and
dsRNA technology,Application in Medicine, genetically engineered products, gene therapy.
Molecular diagnosis : serum and urine analysis, PCR, ELISA ; Transgenic animals : their
physiology, biological products and their use for testing the safety of vaccine and chemicals ;
Bioethics issues ; biopyracy.
Organism and its environment, distribution of biomes, major physical factors and the
physiological responses shown by organisms ; Physical adaptation of plants and animals, rules
governing adaptations ; Population attributes and growth, logistic curves, Darwinian fitness ;
Population interactions and their theories ; Ecosystem structure and functions, ecosystem
productivity and standing crop, decomposition in nature, energy flow in GFC / DFC, ecological
pyramids, succession of community ; Nutrient cycle ; ecosystem services ; Biodiversity types
and its patterns, importance of diversity, its loss and their causes, conservation strategies ;
Environmental issues : Types of pollution, their indicators, causes, effects, prevention and
treatment ; Deforestation, recommended forestation, reforestation, case studies of people’s
participation in conservation.
Syllabus for written examination for PGT(BIOTECH)
Introduction to Bio-technology
Historical perspectives, scope and importance, commercial potential , interdisciplinary challenge, a
quantative approach-scale up – stages in commercialization of product and process, the fermenter ,
aseptic operation. Manufacturing quality control, good manufacturing practices, good laboratory
practices, product safety, bio safety principles-environment and health risk , assessment, bio safety
regulatory guidelines and controlling agency, environmental law for hazardous drugs , microbes and
GMO’S , Biotechnology related issues of Public concern, Bioethics. Marketing, Biotechnology in India
and global trends.
Fundamentals of Biochemical engineering-Concept of pH , buffer , physical variables , dimensions
and units , measurement conventions , physical and chemical properties, data , stoichiometry , errors
in data and calculation, absolute and relative un certainty and types of error statistical analysis
presentation of experimental data , data analysis , trends , testing mathematical models, goodness to
fit , use of graph paper with logarithmic coordination and plotting of data process flow diagrams,
material balance, fluid flow and mixing , mass transfer , heat transfer, unit operations, homogenous
reactions , microbial growth , substrates utilization and product formation kinetics, reactor engineering– rheology of fermentation fluids , scale up concepts, design of fermenting media, aseptic transfer, various microbial and enzyme reactors, instrumentation in bio reactors.
Biotechnology and Society-Public perception of Biotechnology intellectual property, patents, reading a patent, International scenario, National scenario, Varietals protection, ethical issues in agriculture and health care.
Biomolecules- Structure and Dynamics; Thermodynamics: concept of free energy,
entropyBuilding blocks of carbohydrates – sugars and their derivatives , chemical properties of sugar , polysaccharides – glycogen , cellulose, chitin etc.Building blocks of proteins – Amino acids, Chemical properties of amino acids, regulation of amino acid metabolism and inborn errors of metabolism determination of sequencing of amnino acids , fragmentation of polypeptide chain , 3D structure of proteins, secondary , tertiary and quarternary structure of proteins, vitamins and enzymes. Lipids – simple fatty acids , Sphingosine, Glycerol and cholesterol and their chemical properties , lipid metabolism and its regulation. Nucleic acids- Nucleo tides, chemical properties , optical activities and stereo chemistry of bio molecules, polarimetry , conformations and configuration, RNA, DNA, 3D model of DNA , chromosome structure , circular and super coiled DNA. Biochemical transformationscarbohydrates metabolism-glycolytic path way, krebs cycle, homo fermentative path way. KH , PPP, photosynthesis- light reaction Kelvin cycle, nitrogen fixtation , nitrogen cycle, nitrogenase , gluconeogenesis, electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation , precursor-product relationship, supramolecular assembly, biomolecular database, biomembranes, structure and function of liposomes and their applications
Techniques, Instrumentation and principles
Techniques based on molecular weight or size- Centrifugation and ultra centrifugation, gel permeation, osmotic potential.Techniques based on polarity- Ion exchange chromatography, elctrophoresis,isoelectric focusing , hydro phobic interaction , partition chromatography.Techniques based on spectroscopy- Colorimetry, UV visible , spectro photometry, fluorescence , spectroscopy , x-ray crystallography , mass spectrometry , radio isotopes techniques; Techniques based on solubility – Salt perceipitation , precipitation with organic solvent. Cellular techniques- Microscopy-LM,TEM,SEM cell sorting , cell fractionation , cell growth determination , electronic particle counter, culture based counting methods Genetical techniquesChromosomal techniques- Staining , bending, pattern, Karyotyping, chromosomal painting. Mutagenic techniques- Bacterial and seed mutagenesis , recombination in bacteria, conjugation, transduction, breeding methods in plants, pedigree analysis, DNA isolation.
Cell structure and components- Cell membrane – composition, Structure, membrane , associated
receptors, artificial membrane, membrane proteins, principals of membrane organization, cell junction, membrane lipids. Cell organellels – Golgi bodies, Endoplasmic reticulum, lysosomes, per oxisomes, ribosomes, internatilsation of macro molecules , endo and exocytosis , mitochondrial structure and oxidative phosphorylation. Cytoskeleton- Micro tubules , micro filaments, lattice and cytosol ;Nucleus – nuclear envelope , nucleolus , chromosome tissue and organs , evolution and population , speciation , biodiversity , adaptation, natural selection, organization of life, size and complexity , interaction with environment .Cell growth and development - Cell division, cell cycles, cell communication and signal transduction , movement, nutrition, gaseous exchange , internal transport, maintaining the internal environment, reproduction, animal and plant development, immune response, apoposis, plant-pathogen relation, secondary metabolism, defence strategy in microbes and insects.
Genetics and Molecular Biology
Principles of Genetics- Mendelian genetics, role of chromosome in inheritance, multiple alleles ,
linkage and crossing over , genetic recombination, genetic mapping, gene interaction , sexed linked
inheritance , extra nuclear inheritance, quantitative inheritance, genes at the population level,
discovery of DNA as genetic material-Griffiths experiment, Hershey and Chase experiment,
mutagenesis , types of mutations, genome, chromosome and gene mutations, molecular mechanism
of mutation , DNA repair , genetic disorder, transposons, animal and plant breeding. Genome
function- Genome organization, sequencing DNA replication, fine structure of gene, from gene to
protein, transcription , genetic code , translation, regulation of gene expression, genetic basis of
development, genetic of cancer, immuno genetics, evolutionary genetics.
Protein and gene manipulation
Protein Structure and engineering.-3D shape of proteins, non covalent bonds, hydrogen bonds,
van der waals forces, hydro phobic interaction. Structure function relationships in proteins –
Chymotrypsin, molecular disease. protein finger printing, 2D gel electrophoresis, purification of
proteins, characterization of proteins , proteins based products, mass spectrometry, blood products
and vaccine , therapeutic antibodies and enzymes, hormones and growth factor, regulatory factor ,
analytical application , industrial enzymes , functional non catalytic proteins, nutraceutical proteins,
designing proteins, proteomics, genes and proteins type of proteomics .
Recombinant DNA Technology -Tools of recombinant DNA technology, restriction
enzymes, making of recombinant DNA , DNA library, introduction of recombinant DNA into host cellsplasmid , cosmid, vectors, lambda, bacteriophage , identification of recombinants , PCR, DNA probes, hybridization techniques , DNA sequencing, site directed mutagenesis, cloning strategies.
Genomics and Bioinformatics- Structural and functional genomics, genome sequencing projects, genetic mapping, gene prediction and counting , genome similarity, SNPs and comapartive genomics , functional genomics-micro array techniques , fluorescence , in situ hybridization , comparative DNA hybridisation, history of bio informatics, sequences and nomenclature, DNA and protein sequences, information sources-major databases, blast family search tools,resources for gene level sequences , analysis using bio informatics tools.
Cell culture technology
Microbial cell culture and its applications-nutrients , energy sources, sterilization procedures,
environment for microbial growth, aeration and mixing , equipments for culture- bioreactors, Types of microbial culture, measurement and kinetics of microbial growth, scale up of microbial process,
isolation of microbial products, strain isolation and improvement, application of microbial culture
Plant Cell culture and applications- Cell and tissue culture techniques- Nutrient media, types of
cultures, plant regeneration pathways, application of cell and tissue culture, gene transfer methods in
plants, transgenic plants with beneficial traits, stress tolerance, herbicide tolerance, insect resistance,
transgenic plant as bio reactor, diagnostics in agriculture and molecular breeding, morphological and
molecular markers , bioethics.
Animal cell culture and applications- Primary cell culture, secondary cell culture and lines, types of
cell lines , physical environment , osmolality , media , pH temperature cryopreservation, equipments
required for animal cell culture, carbon dioxide incubators, Characterisation of cell lines- Scale up of
animal culture, applicantions of animal cell culture-Tissue plasminogen activator, factor VIII ,
erythropoietin, hybridoma technology, mono colonal antibodies, therapeutic antibodies, stem cell
technology- morphological approach, in vitro clonal assay, long term marrow culture, embryonic stem culture, cell and tissue engineering , bioethics in animal genetic engineering.
Immune system , molecules of immune system, immuno globulins , MHCs, cytokines, T cell receptor, generation of antibodies and T cell receptor diversity , complement system, humoral and cell mediated immunity, immune regulation, vaccines , hybridoma, immuno deficiencies, AIDS, transplantation immunity and cancer.
Biotechnology industry , Bioinformatics, molecular technology for diagnosis of genetic disorders, onco viruses and immunity, lymphocyte, homoestasis, viral induced modulation of host immune response, HLA polymorphism, induction and maturation of B cells, safe limits for radiation determined , radiation carcinogenesis.
Syllabus for written examination for PGT(CHEMISTRY)
1. Some Basic concepts of Chemistry: Scope of chemistryHistorical approach to nature of matter - states of matter, properties of matter and its measurement, S. I system of units, Uncertainty in measurements, dimensional analysis, Laws of chemical combination, atomic and molecular masses, Mole concept and molar masses, percentage composition, empirical and molecular masses, equivalent weight, concept of limiting reagent
2 States of Matter: Gases, liquids and solids, three states of matter, types of intermolecular
forces.The laws governing ideal gas behaviour, Dalton’s law of partial pressure, Kinetic molecular
theory of ideal gases, Maxwell Boltzmann distribution law on molecular motion, real gases
– deviation from ideal behaviour, vander Waals equation.
Liquid and their properties.
Solids: Classification of solids, fundamental types of lattices, two and three dimensional
lattice types, Simple crystal structures, Transformation of crystal structure on varying
temperature, Bragg’s law, density in solids, energy band, band gaps, semiconductors,
magnetic and dielectric properties, stoichiometric and non- stoichiometric defects in solids.
3 Structure of Atom:Structure of Atom (Classical Theory), Dalton’s atomic theory, Bohr’s
model of atom, Structure of atom (modern theory), de Broglie’s relationship, Heisenberg’s
uncertainty principal, Classical wave equation, Schrödinger’s wave equation, Probability
distribution curve, Quantum numbers, Pauli’s exclusion principle, Aufbau principle, Hund’s
rule of maximum multiplicity.
4 Equilibrium: Reversible reactions, criteria of equilibrium, Law of mass action, equilibrium
constant, Kc and Kp , Le Chatelier principle, Ionic equilibrium, Ostwald’s dilution Law, solution of acids, bases, ionic equilibria in solution, Common ion effect – its application to qualitative analysis, acids and bases, Bronsted- Lowry theory of acids and bases, Lewis concept of acid and bases, relative strengths of acids and bases, their quantitative estimation, buffer solution and its use, determination of pH, theories of indicators, conductometric titration, Solubility product, hydrolysis.
5. Surface Chemistry:Adsorption, absorption, sorption, Physical adsorption, Chemisorption adsorption, isotherms ( Freundlich, Langmuir), application of adsorption, types of Catalysis theories of catalysis, classification of colloids, preparation of Colloidal Solution (lyophobic and lyophilic), Special characteristics of colloidal solutions , electrophoresis, Precipitation of colloids – Hardy Schulze law, multimolecular and macromolecular colloids, Emulsion and Gels.
6 Chemical Kinetics: Theories of reaction rates, rate of reaction , molecularity and order of reaction, Fast reactions- Luminescence and energy transfer process, reaction mechanisms(Simple and complex reactions).
7 Redox Reaction and Electrochemistry: Oxidation and reduction, redox reaction and its application, oxidation number, Strong and weak electrolytes, activity coefficient, conductance and conductivity, Kohlrausch law, resistance and resistivity molar conductivity, equivalent conductivity, Qualitative and quantitative aspect of electrolysis, electrochemical cell and electrolytic cell, Electrode and electrode potential and standard electrode potential, Electrochemical series and its applications, Nernst equation and its application, Equilibrium constant and EMF of the cell.
8 Solutions:Solution and its types, expression of concentration of solution, solubility and factors affecting the solubility of a solid in a liquid (temperature and pressure), Vapour pressure of a liquid, Raoult’s law for both volatile and non volatile solute,Ideal and non ideal solution, Colligative properties, abnormal molecular masses and Van’t Hoff factor.
9 Chemical bonding and Molecular Structure: Valence electrons and Lewis structures, Ionic bond, Covalent bond, Bond parameters ,Co-ordinate bond, polarity and dipole moment, Quantitative idea of – valence bond theory, molecular orbital theory (LCAO), Concept of hybridization involving s, p, d orbitals, Hydrogen bond, Resonance.
10. Thermodynamics:Macroscopic properties of the system, modes of transfer of energy between system and surrounding, Phase transition, phase rule and phase diagram, First Law, second law and third law, of thermodynamics. Internal energy and enthalpy of the reaction, their measurement and application, spontaneity of process, Entropy and spontaneity, Helmholtz and Gibb’s free energy, Thermodynamics of electrochemical cells.
11. Classification of elements and periodicity in properties: Significance of classification, brief history of the development of periodic table, periodic laws, name of the elements with Z>100 according to IUPAC system, classification of elements into s, p, d, f –block elements and their characteristics,
Periodic trends in the properties of elements – Ionization enthalpy, Electron gain enthalpy, electronegativity, atomic radii, ionic radii, periodicity of valency or oxidation state.
12. Hydrogen:Position of Hydrogen in periodic table, occurrence, isotopes, Preparation of hydrogen, on small and commercial scale, hydrides, water, hard and soft water, heavy water, hydrogen peroxide, hydrogen economy, hydrogen as a fuel.
13. General principles and processes of isolation of elements and s – block elements: Principles and methods of extraction, oxidation and reduction as applied to the extraction procedures of Al, Cu, Zn and Fe.s – block elements, general introduction – Electronic configuration, occurrence,Anomalous properties of the first element of each group, diagonal relationship, Trends in variation of the properties, reaction of alkali and alkaline earth metals. Preparation and properties and uses of some important compounds: - sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide and calcium carbonate, industrial uses of lime and lime stone, biological importance of sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium.
14. p – Block Elements: Electronic configuration, variation in physical and chemical properties
of groups 13 to 18, physical and chemical properties of borax, boric acid, boron hydride, silicones, preparation and uses, preparation, properties and uses of nitrogen, ammonia, nitric acid and oxides of nitrogen, phosphorus – allotropic forms, preparation and properties of phosphine, phosphorus pentachloride and phosphorus trichloride, preparation, properties and uses of oxygen and ozone, hydrides and halides of 16 group elements, their structure and nature, allotropic forms of sulphur- their preparation, preparation, properties and uses of sulphur dioxide, industrial preparation of oxo-acids of sulphur, preparation and properties of halogen and halogen acids, inter halogen compounds, pseudohalide ions. Oxo-acids of halogens, their structure and nature, preparation, properties and uses of xenon fluorides, oxides of xenon and xenon oxo fluorides.
15. The d – and f- Block Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration and general trend in the properties of first row transition metals like metallic character, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, coloured ion formation, catalytic properties, magnetic properties, oxides, halides and sulphides of first row transition metals, complex compound formation etc. Preparation, properties and structures of KMnO4 and K2Cr2 O7, lanthanoids and actinoids.
16. Co-ordination Compounds and organometallics: Meaning of co-ordination compounds, Werner’s theory, ligands – their types, IUPAC nomenclature of co- ordination compounds, isomerism, bonding in co-ordination compounds, colour, magnetic properties and, stabilities of co-ordination compounds. Chemical and biological importance of coordination
compounds, metal carbonyls: preparation, properties and bonding, organometallic compounds and their classification.
17. Organic Chemistry : Some Basic Principles and Techniques: General Classification of
organic compounds, Shapes of organic compounds-Hybridisation(sp, sp2
,sp3), Structural representation of organic molecules, Functional groups, Homologous, series. Common or trivial names, nomenclature of aliphatic, aromatic and substituted aromatic compounds.
Isomerism : Structural and Stereo isomerism Fundamental Concepts in Reaction Mechanism: Cleavage of covalent bond, Types of attacking species, electron movement in organic reactions, electronic displacement in a covalent bond and types of organic reactions.
Methods of purification of organic compounds: Qualitative analysis,Quantitative analysis., estimation of the elements and determination of empirical and molecular formula.
18. Hydrocarbons: Classification of hydrocarbons.
Alkanes: Conformations (Newmann and Sawhorse formulae), Physical properties,Chemical reactions
Cycloalkanes: Preparation, physical and chemical properties, stability of
cycloalkanes(Bayer strain theory), chair and boat forms of cyclohexane.
Alkenes:, structure of double bond, geometrical isomerism, physical properties, methods of preparation, chemical reactions.
Alkadienes: Classification of dienes, Preparation of conjugated dienes, Chemical properties(1,2 and 1,4- addition to conjugated dienes).
Alkynes:, structure of triple bond, physical properties, methods of preparation Chemical properties, Acidic nature of alkynes
Aromatic Hydrocarbons:, Structure of benzene, resonance, aromaticity (Huckel’s rule) Chemical properties, mechanism of electrophilic substitution direct influence of substituents in monosubustituted benzene.
19. Environmental Chemistry: Environmental pollution, Atmospheric pollution, Tropospheric
pollution(Air pollution), Major air pollutants, Control of air pollution, Smog(Chemical and
Photochemical smog), Stratospheric pollution: Ozone layer and its depletion, Acid rain,
Green House Effect and Global warming, Water pollution, Soil pollution and Industrial
20. Haloalkanes and Haloarenes: Classification, methods of preparation of haloalkanes and haloarenes, their physical properties, tests to distinguish between alkyl and aryl halides, mechanism of SN1 and SN2 reactions, elimination reactions (Saytzeff Rule, E1 & E2 mechanism).Poly halogen compounds: Preparation and properties.
21. Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers: Classification, preparation, properties and uses, tests to distinguish between primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols. Distinctions between alcohols and phenols. Preparation of ethers , physical and chemical properties.
22. Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids: Structure of carbonyl group, preparation of
aldehydes and ketones, physical , Chemical properties and uses, tests to distinguish between aldehydes and ketones .Preparations of carboxylic acids preparation properties and uses.
23. Amines (Organic compounds containing nitrogen ): Classification, Structure of amino
group, preparation, Physical, Chemical properties, tests to distinguish between primary, secondary and tertiary amines
24. Polymers: Polymerization, Classification of polymers based on : origin, structure, molecular forces, mode of polymerization. Addition polymerization Condensation polymerization(Step-growth polymerization) Preparation of condensation polymers Synthetic and natural rubber and vulcanization, Determination of molecular mass of polymers:. Poly dispersity index(PDI). Bio-degradable polymers like PHBV.
25. Biomolecules(Biochemistry):Carbohydrates: Classification of carbohydrates , Structural determination of glucose and fructose on the basis of their chemical properties, Open chain (Fischer) structure, cyclic structure(Haworth form), and forms of glucose, Mutarotation, anomers and epimers, Chemical reactions of glucose, Reducing and non-reducing sugars, Configuration of glucose and fructose. Disaccharides Sucrose, Haworth representation of disaccharides, Polysaccharides, Starch, Cellulose, and amylopectin structures, Functions of Carbohydrates in living organisms. Carbohydrate metabolism, glycolysis, electron-transport chain, Proteins: Amino acids, Zwitter ion, Iso-electric point, peptides and peptide bond, Fibrous proteins, Globular proteins and their functions, Primary, Secondary(Helix and pleated sheet structures) and tertiary structure of proteins, denaturation and renaturation, Enzymes, specificity and mechanism of enzyme activity , coenzymes, applications of enzymes. Nucleic acids : Nucleosides, Nucleotides, Structure of ATP, Photosynthesis(Light and dark reactions) Primary and Secondary structure of DNA(Double Helix structure) , biological functions of nucleic acids, Replication, Protein synthesis (Transcription, Translation, mutation), genetic code, genetic errors, Vitamins, classification, diseases caused by the deficiency of vitamins, Hormones (steroid hormones and non-steroid hormones) and their functions.
26. Chemistry in Everyday life: Drugs and medicines - designing a drug, drug metabolism, classification of drugs, enzymes as drug targets, action of drug through drug receptor interaction, types of drugs: Antipyretics, Analgesics, antiseptics, disinfectants, tranquilizers, antimicrobials, antibiotics(Narrow spectrum and broad spectrum antibiotics), antifertility drugs, antihistmmines, antacids. Chemicals in food, Food preservatives, artificial sweetening agents, Soaps and detergents, Preparation soaps(Saponification) and detergents, cleansing action of soaps, advantages of detergents over soaps, Deodorants, Edible colours, antioxidants.
SYLLABUS FOR WRITTEN EXAMINATION FOR PGT(COMMERCE)
PART – I
BUSINESS STUDIES AND MANAGEMENT
Form of Business Organization – Sole Proprietors, Joint Hindu Family, Partnership, Joint Stock Company and its formation, Cooperative organization.
Business ownership– Private, public and Joint sector. Public Enterprises, Roledynamics of Public Sector, Global Enterprises (Multinational Companies), Joint Ventures.
Business Services – banking, insurance, transportation, warehousing, communication, Impact of Technology on Business Services.
Trade: Internal Trade Retail and Wholesale trade, Emerging modes of businessfranchisee, E-business and Outsourcing. International Business–Export-Import – Procedure and documentation, EPZ/SEZ . International Trade Institutions and Agreements – WTO, UNCTAD, World-Bank, IMF.
Business Finance: Sources – owners and borrowed fund, Sources of raising finance, Equity and preference Shares, GDR,ADR, Debentures, Bonds – Retained Profit, Public Deposits, Loan from Financial Institutions and commercial banks, Credit-rating and rating agencies, Trade credit, Micro-credit.
Social Responsibility of Business, Business Ethics, Environment protection.
Management – concept, objectives, nature of management as Science, Art and Profession, levels, Principles of Management general and scientific.
Business Environment – meaning, importance, dimensions, changing business environment–special reference to liberalization, privatization and globalization, Business - a Futuristic vision.
Management Function – Planning, organizing, staffing, directing, controlling and coordination
Business Finance: Financial Management – meaning, scope, role and objectives,financial planning, Capital structure, leverage, Fixed and working capital – meaning and factors affecting its requirements.
Financial Market – Money Market-nature, instruments, Capital Market- Primary and secondary, Stock exchange, NSEI, OTCEI, Procedures, SEBI.
Human Resource Management– meaning , importance, man-power estimation , Recruitment and selection, Training and development , Compensation, Performance Evaluation
Marketing – meaning, functions and role, Levels of Marketing , Changing facets of marketing Product-mix, Models of Marketing.
Organizational Behaviors : Individual behaviors , Motivation–concepts and applications, Personality perception, Learning and attitude, Leadership and its approaches, Communication , Group dynamics.
Emerging Trends in Management – Business Process Reengineering, Total Quality Management, Quality Circles, Benchmarking, Strategic Management, Knowledge Management, Business Standardization and ISO.
Consumer Protection – Meaning, importance, consumers’ rights, Consumers’ responsibilities, Consumer awareness and Legal redressal with special reference to consumer Protection Act, Role of consumer organization and NGOs.
FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL STATEMENT ANALYSIS
Process of Accounting :Voucher, transaction ,Accounting Equation, Rules of Debit andCredit, Book of original entry-Journal and Special Purpose Books, Ledger ,posting from Journal and subsidiary books, Balancing of Accounts, Trial Balance and Rectification of Errors .Bank Reconciliation Statement.
Accounting for depreciation ,Provisions and Reserves ,Bills of Exchange, Non-Profit Organization , Partnership Firms - Reconstitution of Partnership (Admission ,Retirement ,Death and Dissolution),Account of Incomplete Records, Consignment and Joint ventures.
Accounting of Joint stock Companies: Share capital types of shares, accounting forissue, allotment forfeiture and re-issue of shares. Debentures –types, issue and method of redemption . Final
Accounts of Sole proprietor and Joint Stock Companies. Emerging trends of presentation of Final Accounts.
Accounting for liquidation.
Financial Statement Analysis: Meaning, significance, limitation .Tools for Financial Statement Analysis-comparative statements, common size statements, Trend analysis, accounting ratios.
Fund Flow Statement and Cash Flow Statement: Meaning, objectives, preparation as per revised standard issued by ICAI.
Cost Accounting- Nature, functions . Job costing, Process costing, Marginal costing,Cost-volume-profit relationship. Cost control and cost reduction techniques
Computers In Accounting: Introduction to Computers and Accounting Information System, Application of Computers in Accounting, Automation of Accounting process, designing accounting reports, MIS reporting, data exchange with other information system. Ready made , customized and tailor made Accounting Systems.
Accounting And Database Management System –meaning, concept of entity and relationship in an accounting system, Data Base Management System(DBMS) in accounting.
Inflation accounting and Accounting for Human Resource of an Organization and Social Responsibility.